PERMASALAHAN EKONOMI MIKRO DAN MAKRO
PERMASALAHAN EKONOMI MIKRO DAN MAKRO
1. ilmu ekonomi deskriptif,yaitu ilmu ekonomi yang memaparkan secara apa adanya tentang kehidupan ekonomi suatu daerah/Negara pada suatu masa tertentu,misalnya produksi beras di jawa timur tahun 2009,Tingkat harga gula di Indonesia tahun 2009
2. ilmu ekonomi terapan,yaitu bagian ilmu ekonomi yang membahas penerapan teori ekonomi dalam suatu rumah tangga produksi,misalnya ekonomi perbankan,ekonomi perusahaan,ekonomi moneter.
3. teori ekonomi adalah ilmu ekonomi yang menganalisis tentang hubungan antara variabel ekonomi,misalnya pengaruh kenaikan harga BBM terhadap kenaikan harga hidup,pengaruh tingkat pendapatan terhadap pola konsumsi seseorang.
TEORI EKONOMI MIKRO
Ilmu ekonomi mikro mempelajari ekonomi secar individu,misalnya perilaku konsumen dan produsen.
Analisis ekonomi mikro terbagi:
1. teori harga; antara lain membahas tentang proses pembentukan harga, factor-faktor yang mempengaruhi perubahan permintaan dan penawaran, hubungan antara harga permintaan dan penawaran, bentuk-bentuk pasar, konsep-konsep elastisitas permintaan dan penawaran dan sebagainya.
2. teori produksi; antara lain menganalisis tentang masalah biaya produksi,tingkat produksi yang harus di pilih oleh produsen agar tujuan mencapai laba maksimum tecapai
3. teori distribusi; antara lain membahas tentang factor-faktor yang menentukan tingkat upah tenaga kerja, tingkat bunga yang harus di bayar karena penggunaan modal, dan tingkat keuntungan yang diperoleh para pengusaha.
TEORI EKONOMI MAKRO
Ilmu ekonomi makro mempelajari perilaku masyarakat (Negara/bangsa) dalam memenuhi kebutuhannya(masalah agregat). Awal mula lahirnya ilmu ekonomi makro diawali dengan munculnya buku yang dikarang oleh John Maynard Keynes yang bejudul The General Theory of Employment,interest,and money, yang berisi sebagai berikut” The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money” was written by the British economist John Maynard Keynes. The book, generally considered to be his magnum opus, is largely credited with creating the terminology and shape of modern macroeconomics. Published in February 1936 it sought to bring about a revolution, commonly referred to as the “Keynesian Revolution”, in the way economists thought – especially in relation to the proposition that a market economy tends naturally to restore itself to full employment after temporary shocks. Regarded widely as the cornerstone of Keynesian thought, the book challenged the established classical economics and introduced important concepts such as the consumption function, the multiplier, the marginal efficiency of capital and liquidity preference.
Although The General Theory was written in the aftermath of the Great Depression and was taken by many to justify the assumption by government of the responsibility for the achievement and maintenance of full employment, it is for the most part a highly abstract work of theory and by no means a tract on policy. Its full meaning and significance continues to be debated even today. As a book, it is a difficult read for a modern student of economics, although it is enlivened by some brilliant rhetorical passages, including the description of the stock market in Chapter 12 and the concluding chapter 24 on the (rather tentative) policy implications Keynes derived from his theory.
Contrary to popular belief, Keynes was by no means the first to advocate public works or deficit spending in a depression, but his book provides the theoretical framework within which temporary measures like the New Deal can be justified against the “Treasury View” that public borrowing simply crowds out private investment so that government should always balance its annual budget. Keynes himself placed equal emphasis on redistributive taxation and a monetary policy of ‘cheap money’ as well as fiscal policy, and he did not believe governments should run deficits for current consumption, as opposed to public investment. The book provides the basis for a longer term commitment to the welfare state but Keynes was by no means a socialist in the usual sense and did not advocate big government for its own sake.
The central argument of the book is that the level of employment is determined, not by the price of labour as in neoclassical economics, but by the spending of money (aggregate demand). He argues that it is wrong to assume that competitive markets will, in the long run, deliver full employment or that full employment is the natural, self-righting, equilibrium state of a monetary economy. On the contrary, under-employment and under-investment are likely to be the natural state unless active measures are taken. Although few modern economists would disagree with the need for at least some intervention, policies such as labour market flexibility are underpinned by the neoclassical notion of equilibrium in the long run. One implication of The General Theory is that a lack of competition is not the fundamental problem and measures to reduce unemployment by cutting wages or benefits are not only hard-hearted but ultimately futile. Keynes does not set out a detailed policy program in The General Theory, but he went on in practice to place great emphasis on the reduction of long-term interest rates and the reform of the international monetary system as structural measures needed to encourage both investment and consumption by the private sector.
Just as the reception of The General Theory was encouraged by the 1930s experience of mass unemployment, its fall from favour was associated with the ‘stagflation’ of the 1970s. Although Keynes explicitly addresses inflation, The General Theory does not treat it as an essentially monetary phenomenon nor suggest that control of the money supply or interest rates is the key remedy for inflation. This conflicts both with neoclassical theory and with the experience of pragmatic policy-makers. Furthermore the main Keynesian prescription for inflation, incomes policy, has lost credibility.
However, many of the innovations introduced by The General Theory continue to be central to modern macroeconomics. For instance, the idea that recessions reflect inadequate aggregate demand and that Say’s Law (that supply creates its own demand) does not hold in a monetary economy. President Richard Nixon famously said in 1971 that “We are all Keynesians now” (ironically, shortly before Keynesian economics fell out of fashion), a phrase often repeated by Nobel laureate Paul Krugman.”
Buku ini merupakan landasan dari ekonomi makro pada saat ini. Dalam buku tersebut, Keynes berpendapat bahwa pengangguran dapat terjadi dan berlangsung dalam waktu yang tidak terbatas.
Aspek analisa ekonomi makro:
1. pendapatan nasional
2. neraca pambayaran dan kurs valuta asing
3. kesempatan kerja
7. pertumbuhan ekonomi
8. suku bunga perkembangan pasar saham
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